Effect of media on psycho-social interaction among the children with their parents of urban people in Dhaka .Nazma Sultana

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Social media has become an important part of our daily life. It has a significance influences on the people who use them in their daily life frequently. The number of people using social network sites has been increasing continuously. For this frequent utilization has started to affect our social life. This study examine whether the use of social network sites affects the psychosocial interaction between children and their parents. Media has a direct and momentous influence on individuals on society. It’s also decline the level of face to face communication of people with their family members and others. But the most susceptible members of society to the effect of media are children. In Bangladesh 70% people are heavy internet users. About 23 percent of them spend more than five hours on the social networking sites a day. Media are increasing pervasive in the lives of children-roughly the average child today spends nearly about 45 hours per week with media, compared with 17 hours with parents and 30 hours in school. According to a social learning theory, children & adolescents learn by observing & imitating what they see on screen particularly when these behaviors are realistic or are rewarded. The influence of the media on the psychosocial development of children is profound. Thus it is important for parents to provide guidance on age-appropriate use of all media, including television, radio, music, video games and the internet.

Key words: social media, psychosocial, Technology, Parent, Social Relationship, Adolescents, Teen age, Youth

Introduction

Psychosocial is relating to the combination of psychological and social behavior. An example of psychosocial is the nature of a study that examines the relationship between a person’s fears and how he relates to others in a social setting. The term ‘psychosocial’ refers to the dynamic relationship between the psychological dimension of a person and the social dimension of a person. The psychological dimension includes the internal, emotional and thought processes, feelings and reactions, and the social dimension includes relationships, family and community network, social values and cultural practices. Psychosocial interventions. A Handbook, page 25.)

Human beings express their nature by creating and recreating an organization which guides and controls their behavior in many ways. This organization liberates and limits the activities of men, sets up standards for them to follow and maintain. This organization which is responsible for fulfillment of life of every individual is called society. Man in every society has suffered from one or the other problems. Men in modern societies are also experiencing various problems and his behavior gets affected by many things.

Media is one of them.it is the plural of the word medium.  Media are the vehicles or channels which are used to convey information, entertainment, news, education, or promotional messages are disseminated. Media includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such as television, radio, newspapers, billboards, mails, telephone, fax, internet etc (the main means of mass communication).

In general, media effects are usually described as cognitive, affective, or behavioral (Ball-Rokeach & DeFleur, 1976; Chaffee,1977; Roberts & Maccoby, 1985). Cognitive effects are those that concern the acquisition of information—what people learn, how beliefs are structured (or restructured) in the mind, how needs for information are satisfied or not. These effects include concerns about what is learned as well as how much is learned. Whereas news and public affairs information is often the focus of cognitive effects, the cognitive impact of entertainment is also an important area of study. Affective effects involve the formation of attitudes, or positive or negative evaluations about something. Other areas of affective effects concern emotional reactions to media content, such as fright or amusement, or the development of feelings toward other objects as a result of media exposure, such as the generation of fear in society as a result of watching violent television programming. Behavioral effects are observable actions that are linked to media exposure. The most studied kinds of behavioral effects focus on anti- or prosocial behavior.

In Bangladesh 30 million people are using social media, according to the Digital in 2018 report jointly prepared by We Are Social and Hootsuite. Of the total population of 166.5 million, 36% are urbanized population. Around 94 per cent of the social media users access the social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter through mobile phone devices. It also showed that around 18 per cent of the country’s people are active social media users. The report also unveiled that monthly active Facebook user’s number 30 million and 93 per cent of them accessed the site through mobile phones. Amongst the social media users, 74% identify as male and 26% identify as female. Again, 24 per cent of the declared profiles of the country’s Facebook users are female. Active mobile social media user penetration is at 17% (28.0 Million). There are 28 million active users on social media, access it through their phone. On an average, the engagement rate for a Facebook page post is 4.16% in Bangladesh.

Dhaka is the third most densely populated mega city in the world, with 23,234 people living per square km area, according to World Population Review. Dhaka has been ranked second in terms of having the most active Facebook users in the world according to Global Digital Statshot of Q2 report of 2017. In the last 30 days, 22 million people in Dhaka used the social media website.[4,5,6]

Media affects everyone in different ways. Adults use media to learn the latest news, to communicate with people around the world. Women trying to measure up to their celebrity idol, children trying to fit in with drugs, or teens battling peer pressure seen in the media. They spend most of their time indoors on the internet or watching TV, Facebook others sites. They are not exposed to as much outside friend or family members and have fewer relationship with actual people. Sometime this things lead them to loneliness and depression. On the other hand children are growing up surrounded by mobile and interactive social media sites. At first parents introduce their children to the internet and different type of device in their early childhood. Adolescent are very fond of devices and social sites because of the colorful and seem to be a realistic virtual world. Adolescent are spend free time to watching movie, shows and playing game. In some school use blog for education. They make new friend by facebook, twitter and spend most of their time by chatting. They prefer texting to phone conversations, online chat to a face to face meeting. Many have replaced human interaction with convenient platforms such as facebook, twitter, and instragram. Sometime superficial friendships leading to emotional and psychological problems. It’s also make a distance between children and parents. Media contribute to a transformation in the cultural and social values of the children. Media can bring about a change in the attitudes and beliefs of the children. It lowers the motivational level of the people, especially of the teenagers and student. it can become easily addictive taking away family and personal time as well as diminish interpersonal skills, leading to antisocial behavior.

Rationale

Media is also considered to be our main window to the world. It has a direct impact over the lifestyle of society. There are always two sides of every coin. Media is just a tool or mean for people to use. But Excessive use of its decrease the incentive to become active around us, physically, socially, and politically. Media can create addiction, anxiety, depression, cultural problem, morality problem, decrease concentration. If we do not react to this evolution, which is quite rapidly disconnecting us from each other as well as from ourselves and the rich inner re-sources that we all possess. Doing research on this topic is a need of the time. By identifying the immoral side of media in the society we could reduce the problem. If the problem goes unchecked then one day media could turn out to be a cruse for us.

Objective

General objective

Effect of media on psychosocial interaction with parents of the urban people in Dhaka.

 Specific objectives

The specific objectives of the study are as follows:

  1. To determine the socio demographical characteristics of the respondents.
  2. To assess the positive effect of media on the population in the country.
  3. To determine negative effect of media on the home environment.
  4. To find out the influencing factors causing the population more interested of see the media.

Conceptual Framework

Independent variable

Socio –demographic factors

1.      Age

2.      Sex

3.      Religion

4.      Education

5.      Occupation

6.      Marital Status

7.      Monthly income

8.      Family  member

9.       No of sibling

Effect of media on psycho-social interaction among the children with their parents of urban people at Dhaka.

 

Behavioural Factors

1.      Watching TV or video game at late night

2.      Use Facebook, twitter while taking mail

3.      Playing action type video game

4.      How much time spend with family

5.      Emotional attachment with parents

6.      Parents attitude

 

Figure 1: Conceptual framework (self-design)

 

  1. Literature Review

During the early years, children’s education and activities are the responsibility of parents, care-givers and educators. But Today’s parents use technologies to their own advantage but often fail to consider their children’s privacy rights and the long-term implications of information-sharing.  Privacy is a human right which children should also have and they ought to benefit from their parentsonline privacy (Shmueli, & Blecher, 2011). However, most parents are unaware that they violate their children’s rights to privacy by uploading photos and publishing health data. Some parents are also quick to ‘name and shame’ their children without thinking about this issue. Bed-wetting and funny birth marks may amuse parents but what if other children chance upon the lurid details? Children may well come to curse their parents when such things come to light later in life. [1]

The Parent-Child Relationship is one that nurtures the physical, emotional and social development of the child. It is a unique bond that every child and parent will can enjoy and nurture. This relationship lays the foundation for the child’s personality, life choices and overall behaviour. It can also affect the strength of their social, physical, mental and emotional health. A child who has a secure relationship with parent learns to regulate emotions under stress and in difficult situations. A secure attachment leads to a healthy social, emotional, cognitive, and motivational development. Children also gain strong problem-solving skills when they have a positive relationship with their parents. The availability internet facilities and affordable cell phones most of the people spend their time in social media. Most teenagers and adolescents are always glued to their cell phones chatting with friends on the social network

Before the social media era, parents used to raise their children with the help of the community and the extended family. These were trusted in grooming children within the specifications of their cultural requirements. Boys would be trained and counselled at the ‘dare’ (where men and boys would sit in the evening after work to discuss issues), while women and girls stayed at home preparing food. Various life skills would be imparted to these young people to become responsible adults who could manage their own families in future. The young people would pay attention to whatever was taught at the ‘dare’ (boys) or in the house (girls) and obey all instructions Information and Knowledge Management given to them. The children belonged to the community, which was responsible for making the rules and safeguard the norms and values of that society (Chakuchichi and Zvaiwa, 2010).

Now Children are allowed to use Social media as frequently as they want. These children are more likely to experience problems with authority (e.g school teachers) and tend to perform poorly in school. Uninvolved parenting adversely affect child development. When it comes to face book use they are not restricted. They can access information on drugs, sex and Satanism from people whom they befriend on Facebook. These children tend to lack self-control and have low self-esteem. [2]

Social effects of the Internet been more contentious than as to its effect on close relationships, such as those with family and friends. Social networking sites are a type of virtual community that has grown tremendously in popularity over the past few years in our country. These sites (i.e. Facebook, LinkedIn, Instagram) are an appendage of the new wave of the internet. Users create their own profiles –a virtual persona –and use their profile to list their favorite music, movies, and television, as well as upload their own pictures, video and music. Because of this ability to create an identity, social networking has become an essential part of the lives of adolescents and young adults, the most frequent users of these sites. With the ever increasing usage of these social networking sites, the young group of people are becoming more dependent of the virtual relationships sacrificing their family and social values.

Very recently, Bangladesh saw some ruthless criminal activities which are closely related to the unhealthy family relationships. Youth of our country most often use social networking sites to connect with friends and to build communities, something they are also doing offline. Nevertheless, risks lie in communication with dangerous strangers, lack of face‐to‐face interaction, and the weakening of family ties.

Parents and adolescents worry that Internet use might have a negative effect on family communication and closeness. This concern has received empirical support from a recent study, which, based on family time diaries, found that Internet use at home was negatively related to time spent with family. Furthermore, the reduction in family time was higher for the average Internet user than for the average TV watcher. As well as the amount, the quality of family time also appears associated with Internet use. Recent studies that investigated the effect of frequency of daily Internet use by adolescents on the quality of their relationships with parents and friends found that low Internet use was associated with better relationships with parents and friends than was high Internet use (Mesch, 2003).[3]

  1. Methods and materials

 Study design

This study is a cross sectional type of descriptive study

 Study locale

Dakin Badda, gulshan 1, niketon, Dhaka city

Study period

july 2018 to November 2018

 Study population

Population age 10-40 years residing in Dakin Badda, gulshan 1, niketon area in the Dhaka city.

Study sample

175 population. House hold of this specific area, service holder and university student.

Sample size calculation

The following formula will be used to calculate the desired sample size:

n=z^2pq/d^2

Where,

n = sample size

z = 1.96, z value of standard normal distribution (at 95% confidence level)

p = proportion of the population with certain characteristic/condition, i.e. p = 50% = 0.5

q = 1-p = 1-0.5 = 0.5

d = degree of accuracy usually set at 5% = 0.05

Sample size will be 350, but considering time and resource constraints, the sample size taken will be 175.

 Eligibility Criteria

Inclusion Criteria

  1. 10-40 year’s people and some limited location are included
  2. Willing to participate into the study with informed consent.

Exclusion Criteria

  1. People from all social backgrounds couldn’t be reached to be included in the sample.
  2. People who are unable to provide data
  3. People who refuse to participate

Research Instrument

Pretested written structured questionnaire.

Data Collection

Face to face interview.

Data analysis

The obtained data was checked for error, edited and entered into computer an analyzed using SPSS 21 version

 Data Presentation and Interpretation

The data will be first enlisted, coded and entered into computer with the software “Statistical Package for Social Science” version 20 for windows. An analysis plan will be developed keeping in view of the objectives of the study.

 Data quality management

In order to maintain the quality of data, the data will be checked and rechecked in the field. Supervision & Monitoring in the field will be done for the consistency. Data will be entered twice (in computer).The raw data and final data will be compared and a print will be made to compare unnecessary data being removed, out layers and missing information.

 Ethical issues

  • Permission from AIUB ethical board will be taken.
  • Informed consent from the participants
  • Right to withdraw
  • No risk
  • Confidentiality maintained

Result and Discussion

The media has direct and significant influence on individuals of the society as a whole. My study was carried out to find out the effects of media on the psycho-social interaction among children with parents of the people of Dhaka city. Here respondents from the Dhaka region gave the information for the study purpose.

This study shows that among the 175 respondents, majority 112(64.0%) were in the age group of (20-29) years, 26(15.0%) in (10-19) years, 21(12%) in (30-39) years, 12(6.8%) were above 40 years of age and only 4(2.2%) in (1-9) years of age. My study shows that, 105 (60.0%) were male and the rest 70(40.0%) were female.

Among 175 respondent majority139 (79.4%) of the respondents were Muslims, 31(17.8%) were Hindus, 3(1.7%) were Buddhist, and 2(1.1%) were Christian in religion.

Among 175 respondents, majority 75(43%) had passed higher secondary certificate, 56(32%) up to secondary school certificate, 20(11.4%) up to graduation level, 16(9.1%) had passed primary education, 5(2.8%) were illiterate and few passed 3(1.7%) received post-graduation.  

This study shows that majority of the respondents were students comprising 15(8.5%) were government officers, 14(8%) were job holders, 18(10.3%) were having their own business, 116(66.2%) were students and the rest 12(7%) were in other occupation.

Majority were having income 75(43%) were having income between 30,000-49,000 per month, 52(29.7%) having below 30,000per month, 30 (17.1%) were having income between 50,000-69,000 per month and 35(10.2%) having monthly income above 70,000.

Among 175respondent most the respondent 84(48%) came from a family size of 2members 72(42%) came from a family size of 3-4members, 17 (9.7%) came from a family size of 5-10members and 1(.3%) from a less than size 10membered family.

Among 175 respondents, 145(83%) watch television, 26(14.8%) watched television occasionally, 4(2.2%) did not watched television.  

Among 175 respondents 41(23.4%) watched news, 35(20.0%) watched cinema, 8(4.9%) watched talk shows, 32(17.7%) watched daily soaps, 38(21.7%) watched sports, while 6(3.4%) watched both cinema & sports. 6(3.4%) both news & sports and 8(4.5%) had seen all types of programs.  

Among 175 respondents majority 119(68%) watched television for about 1-2 hours, 46(26.2%) for about 2-5 hours, 8(4.1%) for about 5-7 hours and 3 (1.7%) watched television for more than 7 hours per day. So it is concluded that heavy TV viewers (male & female group) more or less do not differentiate themselves in majority of the areas of study habits.

This study shows that majority 151(86.2%) of the respondents were using internet, 20(11.4%) were did not using internet and the rest 4(2.2%) used internet occasionally.

Among 175 respondents majority 107(61.2%) used internet for 1-2 hours per day ,30(17.2%) for 2-5 hours per day, 16(9.1%) for 5-7 hours per days , 12 (6.8%) for more than 7 hours in a day and the rest 10(5.7%) don’t use. Evidence suggests that the degree of dependence is based on the number and amount of information given through media functions.

Among 175 respondents majority 83(47.5%) used internet for social networking, 64(36.6%) for browsing, 11(6.3%) used internet to see movies & other programs, 8(4.5%) for other purposes and 9(5.1%) are didn’t use internet.  Among 175 respondents 123(70.3%) found internet useful for their studies while the rest 52 (29.7%) doesn’t.

Among 175 respondents, majority 65(37.2%) of the respondents doesn’t watch television at late night, 105(60.0%) watched television at late night, and 5(2.8%) watched television occasionally  

In my study shows that among the respondents, 77(44.0%) enjoyed television programs, 42 (24.0%) enjoyed playing games outside, 20(11.4%) enjoyed playing games on a computer while the rest 36(20.6%) enjoyed other activities. Another research shows that the third generation is less interested in the actual content in computer games, but focus more on the student’s engagement with the computer game.

Among 175 respondents majority 147(84.0%) were getting information /advice regarding their health from television & internet while the rest 28(16.0%) were not getting any information /advice regarding their health from internet or television.

Among the total respondents majority of the subjects 115(65.7%) followed the advice which they got from television or internet regarding their health, 55(31.4%) didn’t follow while the rest 6(3.4%) followed occasionally. One report suggests that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or can prevent negative changes in health related behaviors across large population.

Among the total respondents, majority of the subjects 31(17.7%) faced the problem of back pain, 55(31.5%) faced the problem of headache, 39(22.3%) faced the problem of visual disturbance, 24(13.7%) faced emotional disturbance, 16(9.1%) faced the problem of vertigo, 7(4.0%) faced the problems of back pain, headache, visual disturbance and the rest 3(1.7%) faced the problems of back pain ,headache, visual disturbance, vertigo. Studies have documented that desensitization results in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence.

This study shows that majority 34(19.4%) had aggressive changes in their behavior, 137(78.4%) doesn’t observed any aggressive change in behavior, while the rest 4(2.2%) had aggressive changes in behavior occasionally. Another study documented that when the media present the same kinds of messages every week or every day, individual’s behavioral pattern of exposure become more fixed and harder to change.

This study shows that majority respondents 102(58.3%) of the respondent doesn’t having children.56 (32%) of the child of the respondent are interacting with other, 17(9.7%) were not.

This study shows that 59(33.7%) of the total children of the respondents watched television during the meal, 43 (24.3%) didn’t and 73(42.0%) don’t having child.

My study shows that 139(79.5%) think that media is helpful for the study 27(15.4%) didn’t think that while 9(5.1%) occasionally think that media is helpful for their study

This study shows that majority 50(28.6%) said that they will stop watching television or using internet if not helpful , 90(51.7%) were not stop watching television or using internet even if not useful and 35(19.4%) were unable to decide regarding this.

This study shows that majority 114(65.4%) enjoyed to watch television with their child, 48(27.4%) don’t and 13(7.1%) sometimes enjoy to watch television with their family. Some studies suggest that co-viewing with a parent or other adult may increase a child’s learning from educational television, particularly when the co-viewer actively mediates by explicitly drawing attention to the program and by asking and answering questions.

This study shows that majority 115(65.7%) were watched educational programs, 55(31.5%) didn’t watch and 5(2.8%) occasionally watched educational programs.

My study shows that 77(44%) watched debates, 91(52.0%) didn’t watch and 7 (4.0%) occasionally watch debates. Our study shows that 78(44.6%) were watched drama, 94(53.7%) didn’t and 5(1.7%) watched other programs.

Among 175 respondents 66(37.8%) love to play racing games, 22(12.5%) love to play shooting games, 19(10.9%) love to play fighting games, 25(14.3%) love to play logical games, 12(6.8%) love to play arcade, 9(5.0%) like to play all kinds of game and 22(12.5%) don’t play any kinds of games. There is an evidence that there was a difference in mean responses, as high usage video game players reported that they had more trouble paying attention in class when compared with low usage video game players.

This study shows that, majority 134(76.6%) of the subjects are having a Facebook account while 41(23.4%) didn’t have.

This study shows that, majority 49(28.0%) used mobile, 112(64.0%) used facebook, 2(1.1%), 4(2.3%) used Skype 4(2.3%) used both Facebook & mobile, 4(2.3%) Facebook & mobile & whatsapp for their communication.

This study shows that, 41(23.5%) used face book mostly, 117(66.9%) used mobile mostly, 15(8.5%) used television mostly and 2(1.1%) used different obesities for communication in their daily life.

This study shows that, 63(36.0%) think that watching television is affecting their sleep and 112(64.0%) don’t

This study shows that 61(34.8%) of the objects copy what they see on the television or internet while 110(63.0%) don’t copy and 4(2.2%) does something other. As we have demonstrated.

Here, the TV viewing company of caring adults could contribute to children’s well-being in the present media-saturated world.

This study shows that 41(23.4%) copy how to talk from television or internet, dressing 39(22.2), behavior 27(15.4%), copy all the thing they see 5(2.8%) and doesn’t copy 60(34.2%), 4(2.2 %) does some other thing.

This study shows that majority 53(30.2%) mostly like thriller type of programs, 33(18.8%) mostly like documentary type of programmes,18(10.2%) mostly like action type of programs, 42(24.3%) mostly like romantic type of programs ,29(16.5%) like all kinds of programs.

Among 175 respondents, majority 121(69.2%) of the subjects academic/occupational condition is satisfactory, 26(14.9%) excellent, 20(11.4%) non-satisfactory, 8(4.5%) worst. Others have documented a similar negative correlation with college students between amounts of time playing video games grades.

Among 175 respondents, majority 122(69.7%) were of the opinion that media is more harmful to adolescents than adults while the rest 53(30.3%) were of the opposite opinion.

This study shows that majority145 (82.8%) of the subjects said that media has adversely affected our society while the rest 30(17.2%) said that media has not affected our society. Studies have shown that media can provide information about safe health practices and can foster social connectedness.

This study also shows that among the 350 respondents, majority 63(36.0%) said that adverse effects of media can be solved by monitoring of content, 102(58.3%) said it can be solved by counseling and the rest 10(5.7%) were of the opinion to stop media use.

A strong emphasis supposed to be given to make people aware about the bad effects of media and to flourish the good side of media, and this is the goal of this study. As one of the question in this research was `do you think media done any adverse effect on our society` 82.9% said yes and only 17.1% said no, the other question was` if so, then according to you how can we solve them`.35.7% answer by monitoring media usage and content, 58.6 % answer by counseling, 5.7% answer by stopping use of media.

Research suggests that parental monitoring and involvement can make a difference children’s awareness of issues such as online safety, but this needs to be handled sensitively, in a way that respects young people’s right to privacy and does not place an undue burden on parents themselves.

Recommendations and conclusion

Effect of media on the psychosocial development of human. Research has revealed that media is responsible for influencing a major part of our daily life .Media contribute to a transformation in the cultural and social values of the masses. Media can bring about a change in the attitudes and beliefs of the common man. The persuasive nature of the content presented over media influences the thoughts and behavior of the general public. Media has a direct impact over the life style of society.

In this research, efforts has been given to evaluate the impact of media on mass people. Despite bad impact of the media, a large number of families and people are ignorant to matter.

This study will be an important step in evaluating the effects of media, its health hazards after long time using of media like face book, watching TV, playing violent video game, etc. A strong emphasis supposed to be given to make people aware about the bad effects of media and to flourish the good side of media, and this is the goal of this study. As one of the question in this research was `do you think media done any adverse effect on our society` majority145(82.8%)of the subjects said that media has adversely affected our society while the rest 30(17.2%) said that media has not affected our society., the other question was` if so ,then according to you how can we solve them`.63(36.0%) said that adverse effects of media can be solved by monitoring of content, 102(58.3%) said it can be solved by counseling and the rest 10(5.7%) were of the opinion to stop media use. In last but not the least, media is a gift for the modern societies, but these gift can be turn out to be curse, if its negative side is not checked.

So, considering the above fact few recommendation are given.

  • Violent movie, video, Games should be avoided.
  • Social media like face book, twitter should be used properly and consciously.
  • Long time watching TV should be avoided.TV off day or week can be observed.
  • Parents should be aware for their kids to exposure in media violence. They can restrict certain channel to play.
  • Public awareness should be developed about good and bad impact of media.
  • Limit social media usage
  • Use online interactions to facilitate real-world meetings and relationships
  • Post positively
  • Do not use technology for around 30 minutes to an hour before bedtime. Consider using devices in the living spaces in the house rather than in the bedroom when it’s time to go to sleep.
  • Be mindful and aware of online environments and how they might be affecting.
  • Government can play a vital role, like filtering the internet, restricting publish the bad movies and yellow journalism etc.

References

  1. Romero, M. (2014). Digital literacy for parents of the 21st century children. Elearning Papers, 38, 32-40.
  2. Maxwell Constantine Chando Musingafi Impact of the Facebook on Parent-Child Relationship in the African Context: the Zimbabwean Experience
  3. Sadia Sultana Social Networking Sites (SNS)and Family Relationship: A Study on Youths of Dhaka
  4. https://thefinancialexpress.com.bd/sci-tech/social-media-users-30-million-in-bangladesh-report-1521797895
  5. https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2018/03/19/global-digital-report-49-bangladeshis-use-internet
  6. https://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2017/04/15/dhaka-ranked-second-in-number-of-active-facebook-users
  7. Shabnoor Siddiqui,Tajinder Singh Mats University Raipur (C.G.), India Social Media its Impact with Positive and Negative Aspects

Nazma Sultana, MPH

Deputy Manager, Learning Development

BRAC Human Resource & Learning Division .



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